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Russian Geological Research Institute
TsNIGR Museum

Woolly mammoth

Mammoths, the largest mammals that lived on land, have been well known to people since the Paleolithic (70-10 Ka). The height of these animals at the withers reached 3.5 m, weight to 6 tons. A large head with a hairy trunk, huge tusks bent up and inward, with small ears overgrown with thick hair, sat on a short neck. The mammoth's torso was covered with long, coarse red-brown hair, under which a warm undercoat was hidden.

The maxillary and premaxillary bones, forming thin-walled tubes, held the tusks, which grew in length and thickness throughout the life of the animal. The largest tusks of males reached a length of 400-450 cm and weighed 100-120 kg. The tusks had no enamel coating, so they were not notable for hardness. The nasal opening was high on the forehead between the eyes.

 Thanks to the ancient people who left many drawings of these animals on the walls of the caves, mammoths have become the most famous of all extinct mammals.